A vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is urgently needed. Development of broadly-neutralizing plasma antibodies during acute infection is associated with HCV clearance, but the viral epitopes of these plasma antibodies are unknown. Identification of these epitopes could define the specificity and function of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that should be induced by a vaccine. Here, we present development and application of a high-throughput method that deconvolutes polyclonal anti-HCV NAbs in plasma, delineating the epitope specificities of anti-HCV NAbs in acute infection plasma of forty-four humans with subsequent clearance or persistence of HCV. Remarkably, we identified multiple broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) combinations that were associated with greater plasma neutralizing breadth and with HCV clearance. These studies have potential to inform new strategies for vaccine development by identifying bNAb combinations in plasma associated with natural clearance of HCV, while also providing a high-throughput assay that could identify these responses after vaccination trials.
Valerie J. Kinchen, Guido Massaccesi, Andrew I. Flyak, Madeleine C. Mankowski, Michelle D. Colbert, William O. Osburn, Stuart C. Ray, Andrea L. Cox, James E. Crowe Jr., Justin R. Bailey
Histone H3K27 demethylase, JMJD3 plays a critical role in gene expression and T-cell differentiation. However, the role and mechanisms of JMJD3 in T cell trafficking remain poorly understood. Here we show that JMJD3 deficiency in CD4+ T cells resulted in an accumulation of T cells in the thymus, and reduction of T cell number in the secondary lymphoid organs. We identified PDLIM4 as a significantly down-regulated target gene in JMJD3-deficient CD4+ T cells by gene profiling and ChIP-seq analyses. We further showed that PDLIM4 functioned as an adaptor protein to interact with S1P1 and filamentous actin (F-actin), thus serving as a key regulator of T cell trafficking. Mechanistically, JMJD3 bound to the promoter and gene body regions of Pdlim4 gene and regulated its expression by interacting with zinc finger transcription factor KLF2. Our findings have identified Pdlim4 as a JMJD3 target gene that affects T-cell trafficking by cooperating with S1P1, and provided insights into the molecular mechanisms by which JMJD3 regulates genes involved in T cell trafficking.
Chuntang Fu, Qingtian Li, Jia Zou, Changsheng Xing, Mei Luo, Bingnan Yin, Junjun Chu, Jiaming Yu, Xin Liu, Helen Y. Wang, Rong-Fu Wang
This study investigates the relationship between helminth infection and allergic sensitization by assessing the influence of preexisting allergy on the outcome of helminth infections, rather than the more traditional approach in which the helminth infection precedes the onset of allergy. Here we used a murine model of house dust mite–induced (HDM-induced) allergic inflammation followed by Ascaris infection to demonstrate that allergic sensitization drives an eosinophil-rich pulmonary type 2 immune response (Th2 cells, M2 macrophages, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, IL-33, IL-4, IL-13, and mucus) that directly hinders larval development and reduces markedly the parasite burden in the lungs. This effect is dependent on the presence of eosinophils, as eosinophil-deficient mice were unable to limit parasite development or numbers. In vivo administration of neutralizing antibodies against CD4 prior to HDM sensitization significantly reduced eosinophils in the lungs, resulting in the reversal of the HDM-induced Ascaris larval killing. Our data suggest that HDM allergic sensitization drives a response that mimics a primary Ascaris infection, such that CD4+ Th2-mediated eosinophil-dependent helminth larval killing in the lung tissue occurs. This study provides insight into the mechanisms underlying tissue-specific responses that drive a protective response against the early stages of the helminths prior to their establishing long-lasting infections in the host.
Pedro H. Gazzinelli-Guimaraes, Rafael de Queiroz Prado, Alessandra Ricciardi, Sandra Bonne-Année, Joshua Sciurba, Erik P. Karmele, Ricardo T. Fujiwara, Thomas B. Nutman
Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), a subpopulation of stromal cells in lymphoid organs and fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) in adipose tissue, play immune-regulatory roles in the host response to infection and may be useful as a form of cell therapy in sepsis. Here, we found an unexpected major role of TLR9 in controlling peritoneal immune cell recruitment and FALC formation at baseline and after sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). TLR9 regulated peritoneal immunity via suppression of chemokine production by FRCs. Adoptive transfer of TLR9-deficient FRCs more effectively decreased mortality, bacterial load, and systemic inflammation after CLP than WT FRCs. Importantly, we found that activation of TLR9 signaling suppressed chemokine production by human adipose tissue–derived FRCs. Together, our results indicate that TLR9 plays critical roles in regulating peritoneal immunity via suppression of chemokine production by FRCs. These data form a knowledge basis upon which to design new therapeutic strategies to improve the therapeutic efficacy of FRC-based treatments for sepsis and immune dysregulation diseases.
Li Xu, Yiming Li, Chenxuan Yang, Patricia Loughran, Hong Liao, Rosemary Hoffman, Timothy R. Billiar, Meihong Deng
Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy stearic acids (PAHSAs) are endogenous antidiabetic and antiinflammatory lipids. Here, we show that PAHSAs protect against type 1 diabetes (T1D) and promote β cell survival and function. Daily oral PAHSA administration to nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice delayed the onset of T1D and markedly reduced the incidence of T1D, whether PAHSAs were started before or after insulitis was established. PAHSAs reduced T and B cell infiltration and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation, while increasing Treg activation in pancreata of NOD mice. PAHSAs promoted β cell proliferation in both NOD mice and MIN6 cells and increased the number of β cells in NOD mice. PAHSAs attenuated cytokine-induced apoptotic and necrotic β cell death and increased β cell viability. The mechanism appears to involve a reduction of ER stress and MAPK signaling, since PAHSAs lowered ER stress in NOD mice, suppressed thapsigargin-induced PARP cleavage in human islets, and attenuated ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 activation in MIN6 cells. This appeared to be mediated in part by glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and not the G protein–coupled receptor GPR40. PAHSAs also prevented impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance in NOD mice. Thus, PAHSAs delayed the onset of T1D and reduced its incidence by attenuating immune responses and exerting direct protective effects on β cell survival and function.
Ismail Syed, Maria F. Rubin de Celis, James F. Mohan, Pedro M. Moraes-Vieira, Archana Vijayakumar, Andrew T. Nelson, Dionicio Siegel, Alan Saghatelian, Diane Mathis, Barbara B. Kahn
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is a common cause of respiratory infection, but also frequently colonizes the nasopharynx in the absence of disease. We used mass cytometry to study immune cells from nasal biopsy samples collected following experimental human pneumococcal challenge in order to identify immunological mechanisms of control of Spn colonization. Using 37 markers, we characterized 293 nasal immune cell clusters, of which 7 were associated with Spn colonization. B cell and CD8+CD161+ T cell clusters were significantly lower in colonized than in non-colonized subjects. By following a second cohort before and after pneumococcal challenge we observed that B cells were depleted from the nasal mucosa upon Spn colonization. This associated with an expansion of Spn polysaccharide-specific and total plasmablasts in blood. Moreover, increased responses of blood mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells against in vitro stimulation with pneumococcus prior to challenge associated with protection against establishment of Spn colonization and with increased mucosal MAIT cell populations. These results implicate MAIT cells in the protection against pneumococcal colonization and demonstrate that colonization affects mucosal and circulating B cell populations.
Simon P. Jochems, Karin de Ruiter, Carla Solórzano, Astrid Voskamp, Elena Mitsi, Elissavet Nikolaou, Beatriz F. Carniel, Sherin Pojar, Esther L. German, Jesús Reiné, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Helen Hill, Rachel Robinson, Angela D. Hyder-Wright, Caroline M. Weight, Pascal F. Durrenberger, Robert S. Heyderman, Stephen B. Gordon, Hermelijn H. Smits, Britta C. Urban, Jamie Rylance, Andrea M. Collins, Mark D. Wilkie, Lepa Lazarova, Samuel C. Leong, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Daniela M. Ferreira
The stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway is a critical link between innate and adaptive immunity, and induces anti-tumor immune responses. STING is expressed in vasculatures, but its role in tumor angiogenesis has not been elucidated. Here we investigated STING-induced tumor vascular remodeling and the potential of STING-based combination immunotherapy. Endothelial STING expression was correlated with enhanced T-cell infiltration and prolonged survival in human colon and breast cancer. Intratumoral STING activation with STING agonists (cGAMP or RR-CDA) normalized tumor vasculatures in implanted and spontaneous cancers, but not in STING-deficient mice. These were mediated by upregulation of type I/II interferon genes and vascular stabilizing genes (e.g., Angpt1, Pdgfrb, and Col4a). STING in non-hematopoietic cells is as important as STING in hematopoietic cells to induce a maximal therapeutic efficacy of exogenous STING agonist. Vascular normalizing effects of STING agonists were dependent on type I interferon signaling and CD8+ T cells. Notably, STING-based immunotherapy was maximally effective when combined with VEGFR2 blockade and/or immune checkpoint blockade (αPD-1 or αCTLA-4), leading to complete regression of immunotherapy-resistant tumors. Our data show that intratumoral STING activation can normalize tumor vasculature and the tumor microenvironment, providing a rationale for combining STING-based immunotherapy and anti-angiogenic therapy.
Hannah Yang, Won Suk Lee, So Jung Kong, Chang Gon Kim, Joo Hoon Kim, Sei Kyung Chang, Sewha Kim, Gwangil Kim, Hong Jae Chon, Chan Kim
Although modifications of gut microbiota with antibiotics (Abx) influence mouse skin and cardiac allografts, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether and how recipient Abx pretreatment may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. Mice (C57BL/6) with or without Abx treatment (10 days) were transplanted with allogeneic (BALB/c) cold-stored (18 hours) livers, followed by liver and blood sampling (6 hours). We divided 264 human OLT recipients on the basis of duration of pre-OLT Abx treatment into control (Abx-free/Abx <10 days; n = 108) and Abx treatment (Abx ≥10days; n = 156) groups; OLT biopsy (Bx) samples were collected 2 hours after OLT (n = 52). Abx in mice mitigated IRI-stressed OLT (IRI-OLT), decreased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] stress), enhanced LC3B (autophagy), and inhibited inflammation, whereas it increased serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatic PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4) expression. PGE2 increased EP4, suppressed CHOP, and induced autophagosome formation in hepatocyte cultures in an EP4-dependent manner. An EP4 antagonist restored CHOP, suppressed LC3B, and recreated IRI-OLT. Remarkably, human recipients of Abx treatment plus OLT (Abx-OLT), despite severe pretransplantation clinical acuity, had higher EP4 and LC3B levels but lower CHOP levels, which coincided with improved hepatocellular function (serum aspartate aminotransferase/serum aspartate aminotransferase [sALT/sAST]) and a decreased incidence of early allograft dysfunction (EAD). Multivariate analysis identified “Abx-free/Abx <10 days” as a predictive factor of EAD. This study documents the benefits of Abx pretreatment in liver transplant recipients, identifies ER stress and autophagy regulation by the PGE2/EP4 axis as a homeostatic underpinning, and points to the microbiome as a therapeutic target in OLT.
Kojiro Nakamura, Shoichi Kageyama, Takahiro Ito, Hirofumi Hirao, Kentaro Kadono, Antony Aziz, Kenneth J. Dery, Matthew J. Everly, Kojiro Taura, Shinji Uemoto, Douglas G. Farmer, Fady M. Kaldas, Ronald W. Busuttil, Jerzy W. Kupiec-Weglinski
Background: Checkpoint inhibitor pneumonitis (CIP) is a highly morbid complication of immune checkpoint immunotherapy (ICI), one which precludes the continuation of ICI. Yet, the mechanistic underpinnings of CIP are unknown. Methods: To better understand the mechanism of lung injury in CIP, we prospectively collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in ICI-treated patients with (n=12) and without CIP (n=6), prior to initiation of first-line therapy for CIP (high dose corticosteroids. We analyzed BAL immune cell populations using a combination of traditional multicolor flow cytometry gating, unsupervised clustering analysis and BAL supernatant cytokine measurements. Results: We found increased BAL lymphocytosis, predominantly CD4+ T cells, in CIP. Specifically, we observed increased numbers of BAL central memory T-cells (Tcm), evidence of Type I polarization, and decreased expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 in BAL Tregs, suggesting both activation of pro-inflammatory subsets and an attenuated suppressive phenotype. CIP BAL myeloid immune populations displayed enhanced expression of IL-1β and decreased expression of counter-regulatory IL-1RA. We observed increased levels of T cell chemoattractants in the BAL supernatant, consistent with our pro-inflammatory, lymphocytic cellular landscape. Conclusion: We observe several immune cell subpopulations that are dysregulated in CIP, which may represent possible targets that could lead to therapeutics for this morbid immune related adverse event.
Karthik Suresh, Jarushka Naidoo, Qiong Zhong, Ye Xiong, Jennifer Mammen, Marcia Villegas de Flores, Laura Cappelli, Aanika Balaji, Tsvi Palmer, Patrick M. Forde, Valsamo Anagnostou, David S. Ettinger, Kristen A. Marrone, Ronan J. Kelly, Christine L. Hann, Benjamin Levy, Josephine L. Feliciano, Cheng-Ting Lin, David Feller-Kopman, Andrew D. Lerner, Hans Lee, Majid Shafiq, Lonny Yarmus, Evan J. Lipson, Mark Soloski, Julie R. Brahmer, Sonye K. Dannoff, Franco D'Alessio
BACKGROUND Persistence of HIV in sanctuary sites despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) presents a barrier to HIV remission and may affect neurocognitive function. We assessed HIV persistence in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and associations with inflammation and neurocognitive performance during long-term ART.METHODS Participants enrolled in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) HIV Reservoirs Cohort Study (A5321) underwent concurrent lumbar puncture, phlebotomy, and neurocognitive assessment. Cell-associated HIV DNA and HIV RNA (CA-DNA, CA-RNA) were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR). in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in cell pellets from CSF. In CSF supernatant and blood plasma, cell-free HIV RNA was quantified by qPCR with single copy sensitivity, and inflammatory biomarkers were measured by enzyme immunoassay.RESULTS Sixty-nine participants (97% male, median age 50 years, CD4 696 cells/mm3, plasma HIV RNA <100 copies/mL) were assessed after a median 8.6 years of ART. In CSF, cell-free RNA was detected in 4%, CA-RNA in 9%, and CA-DNA in 48% of participants (median level 2.1 copies/103 cells). Detection of cell-free CSF HIV RNA was associated with higher plasma HIV RNA (P = 0.007). CSF inflammatory biomarkers did not correlate with HIV persistence measures. Detection of CSF CA-DNA HIV was associated with worse neurocognitive outcomes including global deficit score (P = 0.005), even after adjusting for age and nadir CD4 count.CONCLUSION HIV-infected cells persist in CSF in almost half of individuals on long-term ART, and their detection is associated with poorer neurocognitive performance.FUNDING This observational study, AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) HIV Reservoirs Cohort Study (A5321), was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIAID and NIMH).
Serena Spudich, Kevin R. Robertson, Ronald J. Bosch, Rajesh T. Gandhi, Joshua C. Cyktor, Hanna Mar, Bernard J. Macatangay, Christina M. Lalama, Charles Rinaldo, Ann C. Collier, Catherine Godfrey, Joseph J. Eron, Deborah McMahon, Jana L. Jacobs, Dianna Koontz, Evelyn Hogg, Alyssa Vecchio, John W. Mellors